Hallo , what a website
Muhammed Rashid muhammed 20/u/13131/ps
The communication protocal DHCP stands for “Dynamic host transfer protocal” which allows the network administrators to computerise the tasks of internet protocal addresses within a network. Every device on TCP/IP network must have a unique IP address to access network and it’s resources. So without DHCP, IP address for new computers must be configured manually. With DHCP, the entire process is automated and managed centrally. The DHCP server maintains a pool of IP address and leases an address to any DHCP enabled client when it starts up the network. Because the IP address are dynamic rather than static, addresses that are nolonger in use are automatically returned to the pool for allocation.
Benefits of using DHCP include,
Reliable IP address configuration. It minimises configuration errors caused by manual IP address configuration such as typographical errors or address conflicts caused by assignment of IP address to more than one computer at the same time.
Reduced network administration. It includes following features to reduce network administration which can reduce costs for example centralised and automated TCP/IP configuration, the ability to define TCP/IP configuration from central location and ability to assign a full range of additional TCP/IP configuration values by means of DHCP options.
Dynamic host configuration protocal are used in network protocal under applications layers.
MUGALA STELLA MARRIS
A network protocol is an established set of rules that determine how data is transmitted between different devices in the same network.
Protocols allow connected devices to communicate with each other regardless of any differences in there internal processes structure
ROUTE ACCESS PROTOCOL (RAP).
RAP is an open distance vector routing protocol that allows the routing informating of devices used in computer network to be distributed from internet service provider system to LAN and WAN environments with devices with internet connectivity.
The routing specifies how routers should communicate with each other and it’s main task is to help them them choose the best router between the two nodes in a computer network.
➨It provides connection between different network architectures such as ethernet & token ring etc.
➨It can choose best path across the internetwork using dynamic routing algorithms.
➨It can reduce network traffic by creating collision domains and also by creating broadcast domains.
The RAP works with the third layer of the OSI reference model layer which is the network layer.
This is where we send information between and across Network through the use of routers
Telnet is a network protocol used to virtually access a computer and to provide a two way collaborative and text based communication channel between two machnies.
USES OF TELNET
Telnet can be used for a variety of activities on a server including editing files,running various programs and checking emails.For example in MUBS telnet is seen where students access online papers and downloading notes.
Telnet helps users to access public data to play games or look up weather reports.In MUBS telnet is used to make research and allows students to access data on different servers.
Users are able to connect to any software that utilizes text based,unencrypted protocols via Telnet from web servers to ports
Telnet is an application for connecting to a command line and operates at OSI layer 7,the Application Layer Protocols.
TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL.A transmission Control Protocol refers to a communications standard that enables application programs and computing devices to exchange messages over a network.
It is designed to send packets(block of data) across the Internet and ensure successful delivery of data and messages over networks. It is also one of the protocols that define the rules of the Internet and is included within the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).
PURPOSE OF THE TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL.
1.Transmission Control Protocol organizes data so that it can be transmitted between a server and a client.
2.Transmission Control Protocol guarantees the integrity of the data being communicated over a network.Before it transmits data, a connection is established between a source and it’s destination which is active until communication begins.
3.Transmission Control Protocol breaks large amounts of data that are transmitted throughout the process.
APPLICATION OF TCP IN MUBS.
1.The Transmission Control Protocol can be used to establish rules and standard procedures for Makerere University Business School and the way information is communicated over the Internet.
2.Makerere University Business School can apply the use of Transmission Control Protocol in it’s operations since it is highly flexible and scalable and therefore new protocols can be introduced and accommodated within the University system.
3.The Transmission Control Protocol is non proprietary therefore making it the best protocol to use since it isn’t owned by anyone or any organization.
LOCATION OF THE TCP IN THE OSI MODEL
In the OSI model, The TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL is located in the transport layer alongside other protocols for example HTTPS.
Nassaka Belindah 20/U/12299/EVE
Protocols are a fundamental aspect of digital communication as they dictate how to format, transmit and receive data. They are a set of rules that determines how the data will be transmitted over the network.
Domain Name System protocol (DNS)
The Domain Name System protocol helps in translating or mapping host names to IP addresses. Domain Name System works on client server model, and uses a distributed database over a hierarchy of name servers.
Host are identified based on their IP addresses, but memorizing an IP address is difficult due to its complexity. IPs are also dynamic making it all the necessary to map domain name to IP addresses. Domain Name System helps resolve the issue by converting the domain name of websites into numerical IP addresses.
Domain Name System facilities internet access.
Domain Name System eliminates the need to memorize IP address.
Domain Name System queries do not carry information pertaining to the client who initiated it. This is because the DNS server only sees the IP address from where the query came from making it the server susceptible to manipulation from hackers.
Domain Name System root servers, if compromised, could enable hackers to redirect to other pages for phishing data
Nakkungu Viola RACHEAL
It stands for simple mail transfer protocol and it is a set of communication that allows different software to send an electronic mail over the internet and it does it basing on the email addresses.
This protocol is mainly used to send and receive emails from one computer to another however it is at times paired with POP and IMAP which play a vital role in the receiving of the emails.
Mubs students have got emails they create at the start of the first year of study and on these emails where they receive information regarding the school from the registrar however without the SMTP these students wouldn’t be able to transmit this kind of information. SMTP has got its positive reasons for its use as well as the constraints towards it some of the pros include;
1.While using SMTP it monitors the emails till when they reach their final intended destination.
2.There is no limit on the volumes of emails to be sent over the network.
However it has some constraints with the major one is it may take a longer time transmitting this mail.
Basing on the layer of the OSI it a 7 layer protocol which is called application layer which contains all services and protocols needed by application software ie sending of emails via a network using a gmail app.
I)A File Transfer Protocol is a standard communication protocol used for the transfer of computer files from a server to a client on a computer network.
II)FTP enables the transfer of files back and forth between computers.
FTP made handling data across the internet much easier and it is used in mubs to do stream video content and to share files from lecturers to students.
FTP works when one party allows another to send or receive files over internet.
FTP is used in Mubs to transfer files from one computer system to another or by websites to upload or download files from their servers.
III)An application layer
This is an abstraction layer that specifies the shared protocols and interface methods used by hosts in a communication network.
Helps to identify communication partners and synchronizing communication.This layer allows users to interact with other software applications.
An application layer sits at layer seven the top of the open systems interconnection (OSI) communication model.
It ensures an application can effectively communicate with other applications on different computer systems and networks.
Muwonge Isaac 20/U/13271/PS
A network protocol is a set of rules that determines how data is transmitted between different devices.
Transmission control protocol (TCP).
This is one of the main protocol of the internet protocol suite. This protocol was developed by Vint Cerf and Bob Khan.
LAYER: The Transmission Control protocol is a layer 4 protocol. Its also known as a transport layer protocol that makes reliable connection between applications since a connection is made before the transmission of data.
Purposes.This protocol can be used to organise data between the server and the client safely and quickly.TCP is used to Break down a message to ensure that the message reaches its destination successfully and quickly. The transmission control protocol is used to detect and minimise issues of unpredictable network behavior hence making flow of communication smooth.
Features of the TCP. It provides error checking and recovery mechanism, Its a full duplex server therefore it can perform roles for both the receiver and the sender. TCP makes data reach the intended destination in the same order it was sent.
Importances of using the TCP; This protocol provides emphasis on accuracy. Therefore its not so much associated with mistakes. It’s a reliable protocol. It provides rules on how information is communicated.
Bahati Victory .
DNS.DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM PROTOCOL.
The DNS protocol helps in translating host names to IP addresses.
It works on a client server model and uses a distributed database over a hierarchy of name servers
Hosts are identified based on their IP addresses but memorizing an ip address is difficult due to its complexity.
Mubs can use it to facilitate Internet access
Mubs can alxo use DNS protocol to eliminate the need to memorize IP addresses .
DNS protocol belongs to the 7th layer of OSI model.
Muhwezi amon 20/U/13072/PS
HTTP stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol.
That refers to an application layer protocol in the internet protocol suite model for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information system.
⏪Purposes of HTTP⏩.
1. Encoding and transporting information between a client and a web server.
2. Transfer other content on website including images, video and audio files
3. Provide a standard way for web browsers and servers to talk to each other.
4.Reports errors without closing the tcp connection.
⏪How HTTP is employed at mubs⏩
*Using http to create mubs students portal,. Students can access their portal for online registration, payment of tuition, updating information.
*using mubsep students can access e-learning system . That access virtual online classes, online tests and exams.
⏪ Describing OSI reference model layer at which HTTP protocol functions⏩
☮️ Network layer protocol
* Network layer is the part of the internet communications process where these connections occur by sending packets of data back and forth between networks. in the 7layer osl model, the network is layer 3.
* it can also be responsible for packet forwarding including routing through intermediate routers.
* functions of network layer
A network protocol is an established set of rules that determine how data is transmitted between different devices in the same network.
essentially it allows connected devices to communicate with each other, regardless of any differences in their internal processes, structure or design.
The hyper text transfer protocol (http)
The hyper text transfer protocol is an application protocol for distributed,collaborative hyper media information systems that allows users to communicate data on the world wide web.
purpose of the http.
This protocol was invented alongside HTML to create the first interactive,text based web browser the original world wide web. today the protocol remains one the primary means of using the internet,it also gives users away to interact with web resources such as HTML files by transmitting hypertext messages clients and servers.
The http can be used institutions like MUBs to fetch hyper text documents,but also images and videos or to post content to servers,like with HTML form results http can also be used to fetch parts of documents to update webpages on demand.
The http is an application layer of the internet protocol suite model and it operates under the session layer of the OSI model. then session layer of the OSI is responsible for creating and managing sessions and is the first layer that processes data.
Advantages of the http.
it offers lower cpc and memory usage due to loss simultaneous connections.
its enables HTTP pipelining of requests/responses .
it offers reduced network congestion as there are fewer TCP connections.
Disadvantages of the HTTP.
clients doesn’t close the connect when all the data needs have been received,hence will not be available during this time period..
it does not offer reliable exchange
it doesn’t have push capabilities
it is not optimised for moblies
NDAHURA JAMES. 20/U/12320/EVE. RN
a)Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is an email protocol that let’s end users access and manipulate messages stored on a mail server from their email client as if they were present locally on their remote devices.
b)IMAP follows a client server model and let’s multiple clients access messages on a comment mail server concurrently.
MUBS can utilize IMAP in operations for creating deleting and renaming mailbox, checking for new messages, permanently removing messages, setting and removing flags.
c) IMAP uses TCP/IP Transport Layer.
Protocol refers to a set of rules needed to be followed by the communicating parties in order to have successful and reliable data communication.
TCP/IP is one of the most important set of internet also known as.. Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol.. The historical and technical open standard of internet is TCP/IP. It is a framework for organizing the set of communication protocols used in the internet and similar computer networks.
It is also used as a communications protocol in a private and computer network
Purposes of the TCP/IP include
Determining the most efficient path through the network
It helps to establish a connection between different types of computers
It specifies how data is exchanged over the internet by providing end to end communications that identify how it should be broken into packets, addressed, transmitted, routed and received at the destination.
TCP/IP is employed or utilized in mubs in a way that
It provides a remote log in over the networks for interactive file transfer to deliver email, deliver web pages over the network and to remotely access a server host file
It also defines how data has to be transmitted or sent
It helps mubs obtain the address to which data is sent
The OSI reference layer at which the protocol function is layer four(4).
Transport is the layer responsible for breaking the data into segments and establishing an end to end logical connection between machines. It defines how data has been transmitted or sent..
At sending computer, this layer repackages messages, dividing long messages into several packets and collecting small packets together in one package..
At the receiving computer, the transport layer opens the packets, reassembles the
original messages, and, typically, sends an acknowledgement that the message was received. If a
duplicate packet arrives, this layer will recognize the duplicate and discard it.
The file transfer protocol is a standard communication protocol used for for the transfer of computer files from one server to a client on a computer network.
file transfer protocol is built on a client-server model architecture using separate control and data connections between the client and server.
FTP is a way to download, upload and transfer files from one location to another on the internet and between computer systems.forexample; at mubs computer are networked to help for easy access of data from one computer to another,an administrator accessing students work sent through email.
FTP allows to download web pages,files and programs that are available on the services for example pages like
FTP is used to upload,download and manage files on a server.for example Mubsep students go and download files from mubs for personal use.
FTP saves times due to its ability to transfer of files from one computer to another in a system in a short period of time.
The OSI model(open system interconnect model)is a conceptual framework used to describe the function of a network system.
Transfer layer manages the delivery and error checking of data packets.its regulates the size sequencing and ultimately the transfer of data between systems and hosts,for example TCP.
The protocol is called the server message block and it is intended to provide shared access to files and printers across the nodes of a network system
It is a new file sharing protocol that allow application on a computer to read and write to files and request services from server programs in a computer network
SMBis a client server communication protocol that lodes at sharing access to files ,printers and other resources on a network. But simply the protocol is used for inter process communication and some of the reasons why it is used it is because;
>It is easier to set up on both Linux and windows machines .
>It as well allows user based verification that helps with multiple access and printer sharing.
Regardless of its pros the biggest setback of using SMB is that it doesn’t support being used across the internet and it only works on host connected to a Local Area Network
>Students always want to print out work using printers connected on the same LAN with printers as there is no need to more with the document the want to print out using this protocol
SMB is most times used as an application layer protocol or even the presentation layer protocol as well.
Name: Wasukira Julius Hamuza
Student No: 20/U/12187/EVE
A protocol is a set of rules that govern data communications. It basically represents an agreement between the communicating devices
Without a protocol, two devices may be connected but not communicating.
HTTP stands for Hyper text transfer protocol, It is a protocol used to access the data on the world wide web (www)
PURPOSE OF THE HTTP?
It can be used to transfer the data in form of plain text, hypertext, audio, video and so on.
It allows us to use in a hyper text environment where there are rapid jumps from one document to another document.
HOW THE HTTP MIGHT BE UTILIZED AT MUBS?
As a request response protocol, Http gives users a way to interact with web resources inform of making research such as HTML files by transmitting hyper text messages between clients and servers.
Enables self study from the internet through enabling students to complete their assignments and presentations via mubsep.
Enables connectivity and communication via the internet.
HOW THE OSI MODEL LAYER FUNCTIONS IN THE HTTP MODEL?
HTTP is an application layer protocol.This layer directly interacts with the software application which is closet to the user.
It basically functions as a client server model which enables communication within client and server.
It also basically provides you an interface to interact with the help of web browser, which is actually provided by HTTP and this is how it fits in the OSI model.
Mujuzi hope mariam
TCP this is communication protocol that defines how to establish and maintain a network conversation by which applications can exchange data.
TCP defines how applications can create channels of communication across a network.
It’s among the major protocols of the internet protocol suite ,and it’s a transport protocol that is used on top of lap to ensure reliable transmission of packets .
It’s used to correct transmission and receipt of bundles of information within a network
It’s purpose are
It’s used to connect devices on the internet
Helps to establish connection between different types of computers via internet
Deliver data packets between between the source application and the destination using structures that place tags with in data packets
It also manages how a message is assembled into smaller packets before they are then transmitted over the internet and reassembled in the right order at the destination address.
How it’s used in mubs .makerere business school.
Like when sending emails to students . When an email is sent from an email server, the TCP layer in that server will divide the message up into multiple packets, number them and then forward them to the IP layer for transport. At the IP layer, each packet will be transported to the destination email server. While each packet is going to the same place, the route they take to get there may be different. When it arrives, the IP layer hands it back to the TCP layer, which reassembles the packets into the message and hands it to the email application, where it shows up in the Inbox hence transfer of data from one computer to another.
Used in eLearning platform by connecting different computer via internet which helps studying .eg online presentation
Open Systems Interconnection model describes seven layers that computer systems use to communicate over a network.its used for all communications in the cloud.
It works at the transportation layer with other protocols.
It takes data transferred in the session layer and breaks it into segments on the transmitting end. The transport layer carries out flow control, sending data at a rate that matches the connection speed of the receiving device, and error control, checking if data was received incorrectly and if not, requesting it again. …
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