Very helpful content..
wish in the quiz the screen display would be to more than one question
Thank you very much sir.
Thanks Sir. i do appreciate the opportunity
This is a communication protocol that is used to send and receive text messages over cellular networks, it is a text-based message protocol. With it, pictures, videos or other media require, multimedia messaging service (MMS), an extension to the SMS protocol.
b) when a message is sent, the message is transmitted from the sending device to the nearest short tower. The cell tower passes the message to an SMS center (SMSC). Then the SMSC forwards the SMS message to a cell tower near the receiving device. Lastly, that tower sends the message to the recipient’s device.
c). I think the SMS protocol works over 3 OSI layers namely:
1.Transport layer: This is used to provide interface to the SMS application
2.Data link layer: This is used to move frame from one service center to another service center
3.Physical layer: This converts data into 1s and 0s or into binary for transmission over media.
Nannyonjo Assumpa Maria
Reg no: 29/U/3318/EVE
I have identified the Transmission Control Protocol, an interconnection aiding protocol that enables application programs and computing devices to exchange data, that is, messages and conversations.
It is used on top of the Internet protocol to ensure reliable transmission of packets or messages. This is accomplished through measures such as solving duplication and packet loss problems as well as out of order packets for example through the use of the SMTP(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) which is sent to a server from email. In the server lies the TCP that divides the messages into multiple packets , assigns numbers to them and sends them to the Internet protocol.
The mentioned TCP purpose can be used by mubs for email communications efficiency and updates since it minimises packet losses, out of order packets, and duplication.
The TCP is a connection oriented protocol that functions at the 4th layer of the OSI reference model. This is the transport layer and it is this layer responsible for taking data from higher levels of the OSI model, break it into segments that are then sent to the lower level layers for data transmission.
FILE TRANSFER PROTOCOL enables file sharing between hosts both local and remote and runs on top of TCT.For file transfer,FTP creates two TCP connections ie Connection and data connection. The control connection is used to transfer control information like passwords commands to retrieve and store files and the data connections is used to transfer the actual life. both of these connections run in parallel during the entire file transfer process.
FTP resume file sharing if it was interrupted.
FTP recover lost data and schedule a file transfer.
FTP sharing large files and multiple directories at the same time
lacks security .
lacks encryption capabilities.
ASIIMWE IVAN 20/U/13137/PS
TCP-Transmission control Protocol
TCP is a connection oriented protocol which means a connection is established and maintained until the application at each and have finished exchanging messages . TCP performs the following actions :
Determines how to break application data into packets that networks can deliever , sends packets to and accepts packets from the network layer, manages flow control , handles retransmission of dropped or garbled packets as it’s meant to provide error-free data transmission and acknowledges all packets that arrive – In the open systems interconnection (OSI) communication model, TCP covers parts of layer 4, the transport layer and parts of layer 5, the session layer.
TCP is important because it establishes the rules and standards, procedures for the way information is communicated over the internet.
Mubs can utilize TCP in organizing data in a way that ensures the secure transmission between the school’s server and clients or students.
It also governs the presentation process
FTP is an acronym standing for file transfer protocal…that is to say a protocal refers to set of rules that render data communication and other IT devices….FTP is a protocal used to transmit files between computers connected to each other by TCP/IP.
FTP transfers files using any of the following modes as follows
1. Stream mode.this is the default mode.
2.block mode.the data here is transfers form FTP to TCP inform of blocks and each block followed by a 3 byte header .that’s is to say TCP is used to transmit data from a variety of high level protocols that need all data to arrive…
3.compressed mode.this mode is basically used to transfer big files..
FTP is basically use for bridging the gap between the host server and local machine. It is used for transferring audio and video files from the local machine. Its provides functions to upload,download, and delete files…its is a client server protocal that communicates between the client and the server…
Furthermore..FTP use the application layer .that is to say use to transfer files between local devices to server .it transfers both text and binary files over the internet. Its architecture is a built in client server and utilizes separate control and data connections between the client and server application.
According to the mubs community, students can use FTP to transfer audio,video, upload a d download information. It can also be use to share and delete data.
BAMUJJE DANIEL SSALI
HTTPS- Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure
Is an extension of http invented and introduced in 1994.
It was introduced to secure communication and data transfer between a user’s web browser and a website.
MUBS’ IT department with the creation of its website and Mubsep has used this protocol to ensure that it’s secure for all stakeholders that access it.
Session layer is a layer 5 and provides the mechanism for opening, closing and managing a session between end user application process.
HYPERTEXT TRANSFER PROTOCOL.
This is a protocol that can transfer information over the network. It is an application protocol for distribution, collaboration, hypermedia information systems that allow the users to communicate data on the world wide web.
In mubs the purpose of HTTP is that it enables communication online ie transfering data from one machine to another.
HTTP also offers a lower CPU and memory usage due to less simultaneous connect
HTTP also offers a reduced network congestion as there are fewer TCP connections
HTTP gives users a way to interact with the web resources such as HTML files by transmitting hypertext messages between clients and servers.
HTTP functions in the application layer(layer 7). It defines how data is encoded for communication between the web browser and web server.
What is a protocol?
This is a set of rules that allows different types of computers or other devices to communicate with each other and the TCP/IP is also used as a communications protocol in a private computer network (an intranet or extranet).
Uses of TCP/IP
TCP/IP can be used to provide remote login over the network for interactive file transfer to deliver email, to deliver webpages over the network and to remotely access a server host’s file system. Most broadly, it is used to represent how information changes form as it travels over a network from the concrete physical layer to the abstract application layer.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
The IP protocol ensures that each computer that is connected to the internet is having specific serial number called Ip address. TCP specifies how data is exchanged over the internet and how it should be broken into IP packets. It also makes sure that the packets have information about the source of the message data, the destination of the message data, the sequence in which the message data should be re-assembled, and checks if the message has been sent correctly to the specific destination. The TCP is commonly known as a connection-oriented protocol.
The two main protocols in the IP suite serves specific functions. TCP defines how applications can create channels of communication across a network. It also manages how a message is assembled into smaller packets before they are then transmitted over the internet and reassembled in the right order at the destination address.
IP defines how to address and route each packet to make sure it reaches the right destination. Each gateway computer on the network checks this IP address to determine where to forward the message.
A subnet mask tells a computer, or other network device, what portion of the IP address is used to represent the network and what part is used to represent hosts, or other computers, on the network.
Network address translation (NAT) is the virtualization of IP addresses. NAT helps improve security and decrease the number of IP addresses an organization needs.
OSI and cons of TCP/IP
The advantages of using the TCP/IP model include the following:
• helps establish a connection between different types of computers;
• works independently of the OS;
• supports many routing protocols;
• uses client-server architecture that is highly scalable;
• can be operated independently;
• supports several routing protocols; and is lightweight and doesn’t place unnecessary strain on a network or computer.
The disadvantages of TCP/IP include the following:
• is complicated to set up and manage;
• transport layer does not guarantee delivery of packets;
• is not easy to replace protocols in TCP/IP;
• does not clearly separate the concepts of services, interfaces and protocols, so it is not suitable for describing new technologies in new networks; and
• is especially vulnerable to a synchronization attack, which is a type of denial-of-service attack in which a bad actor uses TCP/IP.
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